CEP811: Reimaging my Classroom for the 21st Century

This week we explored the possibilities for creating a 21st century classroom. Teachers across the country are rethinking how the spaces students learn in impact the process of learning and developing solution to address these changing needs. The classroom I chose to reimagine is the main graphics classroom in our building. The room serves many purposes from allowing traditional hands on learning experiences and creation, serves as a place to lecture, a computer lab, a place to conduct critiques of student work, and a open lab for students to work in when class is not in session. The other challenge is that 3 to 5 faculty members and the lab assistants share the classroom each semester. Each faculty member has their own needs from the classroom which means the room needs to be flexible. I also had to consider the fact that some equipment simply could not be moved to another location, like the screen-printing press in the corner. There are a few rooms off this room that serve as storage and one will serve as a washout sink for screen-printing shortly. There are two other classrooms used but this one is used the most.

Photos of Current Classroom


IMG_0656 IMG_0665 IMG_0655 IMG_0654  IMG_0658 IMG_0657In past weeks, I have talked about the fact that most graphics classes follow the learning theories of Constructivism and Experiential Learning. Students are given a problem and some foundational knowledge, but it is up to the student the find his or her own path to his or her own individual solution. The instructor and the classmates offer feedback along the way. My goal with the redesign was to facilitate the exploration process, to allow the students to have access to anything they might need to create their solutions. I also wanted to ensure the room was flexible enough to allow each faculty member to configure the room as they may need. The biggest issues with the room are the lack of storage and efficient layout. The instructor can’t see what the students are doing while demoing. There is not enough room for critique without laying all over the computers. There are two rows of desks that do little and offer little to the students. The equipment the students need like the Xyron machine, the button maker, the screen-printing equipment, cutting mats, book making equipment and everything else are scattered all over the room where ever they can fit. Bulky flat files and cabinets are also scattered throughout. Basically, there is a lot of stuff that works, but could work so much better.

My first goal was to set up zones in the classroom based on the main usage. At the very end of the room, I allowed for more room to conduct critiques. I also added these touch screens for looking at student work that Adobe is developing called Project Context (http://tv.adobe.com/watch/max-2013/a-year-before-the-max-keynote-envisioning-the-context-project/). These screens would eliminate the need to print things out all the time and allow for more productive critiques. I also reoriented the classroom to face that wall and put the instructor behind the students so that the instructor can see what is going on. The instructor has easy access to the front of the room and the whiteboards while going over material. The instructor station could also be used to run the third touch screen on the wall in the work area. I put all the printers and scanners along one wall with storage and corkboards for those wishing to pin work for critique. I eliminated all but the portable light tables because they can be moved to where ever they are needed. The main workspace features moveable tables with storage underneath and stools that can be reconfigured as needed. The very end of the room features tables for cutting, a variety of storage solutions, the smaller equipment like the Xyron machines, and the screen-printing equipment. The tables here are also moveable and feature cutting mats on top. I think this new layout opens up the space and allows for the flexibility for each instructor to meet the needs of their class. I tried to reuse as much as possible to reduce budget issues that may prevent this becoming a reality. This would most likely be done in stages and much of the new storage and tables could be built on site in the woodshop.

Proposed Classroom in Sketch-Up (All items at actual size)


classroom_workstation2 classroom_workstation classroom_work_area3 classroom_work_area2 classroom_work_area classroom_whiteboardclassroom_critiqueclassroom__computer_stations References

“A Year Before the MAX Keynote — Envisioning the Context Project.” Adobe.com. N.p., n.d. Web. 25 Nov. 2013. <http://tv.adobe.com/watch/max-2013/a-year-before-the-max-keynote-envisioning-the-context-project/>.

Architects, OWP/P , Bruce Mau Design, and VS Furniture. The third teacher: 79 ways you can use design to transform teaching and learning. New York: Abrams, 2010. Print.

Bill, David. “8 Tips and Tricks to Redesign Your Classroom.” Edutopia. N.p., 6 Aug. 2013. Web. 24 Nov. 2013. <http://www.edutopia.org/blog/8-tips-redesign-your-classroom-david-bill>.

Kahl, Melanie. “4 Lessons the Classroom Can Learn from the Design Studio.” The Creativity Post. N.p., 9 Jan. 2012. Web. 24 Nov. 2013. <http://www.creativitypost.com/education/4_lessons_the_classroom_can_learn_from_>.

Kahl, Melanie. “Remake Your Class: 6 Steps to Get Started.” Edutopia. N.p., 20 Aug. 2013. Web. 25 Nov. 2013. <http://http://www.edutopia.org/blog/steps-to-redesign-your-classroom-melanie-kahl>.

“Remake Your Class – The Third Teacher +.” The Third Teacher +. N.p., n.d. Web. 24 Nov. 2013. <http://thethirdteacherplus.com/remake-class>.



CEP811: Creating a MOOC

This week we explored MOOCs, Massively Open Online Courses. The goal with these courses is to bring education to the masses. Free courses can be taken through services like Peer 2 Peer University and Coursera. I have also personally experienced something similar specifically targeted at those interested in the arts and design through Skillshare which offers a range of courses for free or for a small fee (less than $30). In both cases, these courses offer interested learners a chance to gain access to material and industry leaders that they may not otherwise have access to through the traditional education model.

Create Your Own Typeface
In my Create Your Own Typeface course, my peers will master developing a typeface from initial hand-drawn concept to completed useable font by beginning with sketching and then moving to a finished digital format of the typeface. As part of the course, the students will learn about type anatomy and terminology, which are essential for successfully developing a typeface. By the end of the course, the participants will make a complete typeface including uppercase and lowercase letters and basic punctuation in digital form.

This course will be designed to attract anyone interested in creating their own typeface for use. The course will target beginners who may or may not have familiarity with typography and type anatomy. The course will be mainly aimed at graphic design students or professionals who are interested in the subject but may not have known where or how to get started. While the course would be targeted more at those with at least some graphic design background, the course will not assume any previous knowledge so that anyone with an interest in creating a typeface could do so. As the target audience is graphic designers or graphic design students, the course materials will focus on industry standard software, but will provide links to resources for those who may not have access to the software.

The course participants will interact with each other via forums. Each participant will set up their own thread explaining the typeface they are developing. The participant will continue to post sketches and other images along the way for continued feedback during the project. Their coursemates can then offer feedback at each stage to help the participant improve their work, solve problems, and other feedback.

Week 1 – Typeface Anatomy and Terminology
This first week is designed to familiarize all participants with the basics of type and the terminology associated with it. Participants with design education/experience may not need to spend much time on this, as it will most likely be review. However, for those without the experience, it would be essential to their success in the course. The goal of this week is to provide the participants with background information.

You will learn:

  • What is a typeface? Font? Type family?
  • Basic Type Terminology
    • X-height
    • Baseline
    • Serif vs. Sans Serif
    • Readability
    • Legibility
    • Leading
    • Kerning
  • Type Classification
    • Serif
    • Sans Serif
    • Script
    • Decorative/Display
  • Type Anatomy
    • Ascender
    • Descender
    • Arm
    • Leg
    • Terminal
    • Counter
    • Bowl
    • Tail
    • Spur
    • Loop
    • Link
    • Ear
    • Stem
    • Stroke
    • Crossbar
    • Swash

Materials for the week:

  • Videos on terminology, type classification, and type anatomy
  • Reference sheets for type anatomy and classification

Tasks for the week:

  • Review videos
  • Post introduction on discussion forum, set-up thread student will use in coming weeks

Week 2 – Defining Your Project
This week the participants will define the goals and theme for their typeface. The participant will determine what type of typeface he/she wants to create—serif, sans serif, script, or decorative. The participant will also define what the typeface may be inspired by or what will influence the design decisions. For example, the participant may want to create a typeface inspired by chromatic fonts found in letterpress spec books. Participants will also be provided with things to consider when making decisions about the typeface and pitfalls to avoid.

You will learn:

  • Defining goals for your typeface
    • Choosing a type classification – serif, sans serif, script, decorative
    • How will the typeface be used
    • Will it be readable at small sizes or just at larger sizes
    • What will it be inspired by
      • Book
      • Movie
      • Art Period
      • Historical Type
  • Pitfalls to avoid
    • Don’t just base your typeface on an existing typeface
    • Don’t just digitize your handwriting
  • Searching for inspiration
  • Setting up a Pinterest board with your inspiration

Materials for the week:

  • Videos speaking about how to get started
  • Resources for finding inspiration
  • Guide to using Pinterest

Tasks for the week:

  • Write a two or three sentence statement about the direction you plan to go with your typeface including what type classification it will fall under
  • Create a Pinterest board and pin images that inspire the direction you plan to take with your typeface
  • Post your statement and link to your Pinterest board to the forum
  • Comment on fellow participant projects

Week 3 – Sketching Your Typeface
This week the participants will begin sketching their typefaces on paper. The week will start with a guide to how to get started. The participants will be encouraged to start with pencils and other tools like protractors, compasses, rulers, and French curves. The participants should use their statements from last week as a jumping off point. The participants should feel free to explore beyond the statements if they find they are not satisfied at that point. The material will discuss the creative process and how ideas can evolve from where you start. Participants will post their sketches at the end of the week for feedback from fellow participants.

You will learn:

  • What to start with
    • Establishing the x-height for the typeface
    • Ascenders and descenders
    • Cap height
    • What letters to start with
    • How to use consistent elements
    • Paying attention to type anatomy
    • Double and single story lowercase a and g
  • Tools to use for assisting with the sketching process
    • Pencil and paper
    • Ruler
    • Protractor
    • Compass
    • French Curves
    • Other tools
  • Creative process
    • Evolving ideas
    • Changing direction

Materials for the week:

  • Video tutorials on getting started and the tools to create your sketches with
  • Feedback from instructor and fellow students as participant works through the process

Tasks for the week:

  • Sketch typeface – may not sketch every letter, but should sketch enough to work from when creating the final digital version
  • Post sketches to the forum including questions, challenges or issues you want assistant with from other participants
  • Comment on fellow participant sketches

Week 4 – Perfecting and Scanning Your Typeface
This week the participants will finish perfecting their typeface sketches based on feedback last week. The participants will then scan in their sketches using a scanner. Participants will learn how to improve their scans using Photoshop or another photo editor. By the end of the week, participants should be ready to begin digitizing the typeface.

You will learn:

  • Inking your sketches to help improve the process of scanning
  • How to scan your typeface
    • Scanning using your scanner’s software
    • Scanning using Photoshop
    • Settings to help create a cleaner scan
  • Cleaning up your scans using Photoshop or other photo editing software
    • Focus on using Photoshop and how to get the cleanest file to work from in the next step
    • Provide students with resources to complete the task for other common photo editors

Materials for the week:

  • Video tutorials on scanning and cleaning up the image using Photoshop
  • Additional resource list for other photo editing programs

Tasks for the week:

  • Finalize sketches of typeface
  • Ink typeface
  • Scan typeface
  • Clean up typeface to get in ready for next week

Week 5 – Digitizing Your Typeface
This week the participants will work on digitizing their typeface. The participants should have already scanned in their sketches last week. They will then use them to create a digital version of his or her typeface. The participants will have a variety of software options to choose from to complete this task. Some will free and some will cost money. Participants that are designers will most likely already have access to Illustrator so my tutorials will revolve around that particular piece of software. However, I will provide links to reference materials for the other software programs. By the end of the week, the participants should have a complete digital version of their typeface. They will then post it for feedback by their fellow participants. Participants may choose to tweak their typefaces after receiving feedback.

You will learn:

  • Software to assist with creating a digital version of their typeface
    • Illustrator
    • FontLab
    • Font Forge
    • Font Creator
    • TypeTool
    • Fontographer
    • Glyphs
  • Assist students in deciding on the right software option
    • Cost
    • Ease of use
    • Functionality
  • Using the software to work from scanned in sketches
    • Choose one software program to provide getting started videos to assist participants
    • Direct participants to resources for other software products to assist them if they choose one of the other options
  • Address completing the typeface if participant did not sketch the entire typeface

Materials for the week:

  • Video tutorials on digitizing typeface from sketches
  • Pro/con list for comparing software choices
  • Additional resource list

Tasks for the week:

  • Create a digital version of participant’s typeface
  • Create the typeface in software program of participant’s choice
  • Post the finished typeface in participant’s thread in the forum for final feedback
  • Comment on fellow participant typefaces

Week 6 – Distributing Your Typeface
After designing a typeface, most people will offer the typeface up for use by the public. This week of the course will discuss both free and paid options for distribution. The course will also go over licensing and basic legal considerations a participant should know about before distributing their typeface. Participants will also create a graphic to promote their typeface.

You will learn:

  • Places to distribute your typeface if you so choose
  • Distributing your type face for free, donations, or for a standard amount
  • Licensing

Materials for the week:

  • Resources for distributing their typefaces
  • Examples of graphics to promote typefaces
  • Survey for feedback on the course

Tasks for the week:

  • Distribute typeface through one of the provided sources if participant chooses to do so
  • Create a basic graphic using Photoshop or other software to promote the typeface and show the theme for the typeface established in week 2
  • Complete survey to provide feedback on the course

Instructional Theories
The course, like most art and design courses, will utilize Constructivist principles. Constructivist learning theory purports that learners should be actively engaged, that activities should be interactive and student-centered, and that the instructor facilitates the process of learning. The student’s learning is self-directed and relies on them to explore their own interests or take on the material instead of just one prescribed approach. (http://www.instructionaldesign.org/theories/constructivist.html) While the course gives the users a set of tasks, the manner in which the student approaches the tasks is up to the individual participant. For example, each participant will develop a font based on his or her personal taste and interests. There is no right or wrong solution to the project. The instructor and the fellow participants provide feedback along the way whether in the form of critiques and suggestions to help improve the work, but the final solution, or typeface, is completely up to the student. Participants demonstrate interest in the material be choosing to start the course.

The course also fits into the TPACK framework. The TPACK framework involves the interplay of Content, Pedagogy, and Technology. (Koehler) Ideally, the three work together to provide the most effective educational experience. In my course, the content will be basic typeface anatomy and terminology along with the process of creating a typeface. The Pedagogy comes in the form of using Constructivism learning theories to develop the course structure and materials. The technology comes in the form of the course deployment software (whether I was to use P2PU or another service), the forums, the videos created to demonstrate concepts, and the software used to create the final digital version of the font. All elements come together to form the basis of what I hope is a positive, beneficial experience for participants.

“Constructivist Theory (Jerome Bruner).” Constructivist Theory. N.p., n.d. Web. 17 Nov. 2013. <http://www.instructionaldesign.org/theories/constructivist.html>.

Koehler , Dr Matthew J . “What is TPACK? | TPACK.org.” tpack.org. N.p., n.d. Web. 17 Nov. 2013. <http://www.matt-koehler.com/tpack/what-is-tpack/&gt>.

Note: Image is my own created using Illustrator and Photoshop.

CEP811: Maker Kit Experiment #1

For this week, we were tasked with exploring our chosen maker kits further. Then, we were supposed to connect it with both pedagogy and make use of it in an actual lesson plan for our classroom. My chosen kit was the Makey Makey because of some of the art related experiments I saw on their website. The Makey Makey is basically a circuit board that can be connected to your computer and that you can connect it to other objects like bananas. It can be used like a controller or programmed to do more creative things like use bananas to make a piano. (Find out more at http://www.makeymakey.com/) The Makey Makey seems like the perfect tool to teach students about experimentation in art using programming and other technological devices.

Art and design classes are typically centered on learning theories like Experiential Learning and Constructivism. Experiential Learning, developed by C. Rogers, tends to be self-driven and self-motivated allowing users to make better connects to the material and its value (http://www.instructionaldesign.org/theories/experiental-learning.html). Constructivism, developed by Jerome Bruner, also involves user centered learning motivated by the specific student’s interests and encourages explorations of a hypothesis actively gain knowledge (http://www.instructionaldesign.org/theories/constructivist.html). Both methods encourage exploration, evaluation, and essentially involve problem solving in some form. Design has always focused around problem solving. A typical assignment or activity involves the student being presented with some base knowledge to frame a problem and then using a given problem statement, like create a logo or develop a social campaign, that they solve individually in some manner. Even when given very limited and specific criteria, solutions tend to vary widely as students employ their own perspectives and backgrounds in their problem solving. These methodologies also allow for far more student centered learning where each student guides their own understanding of the material.

I teach a Graphic Design Survey course that is similar to an art history course. I find they learn little from straight lecture and continue to find ways to put what were are talking about to hands on use. Most of my students do better with the hands on activities over rote memorization and lecture. I believe the Makey Makey can assist with this task when talking about experiments in art and design that cross over and make use technology and programming. I end the semester with a two week exploration of contemporary design and the boundaries being pushed as a result of technological advances. In some cases, it seems like an obvious connection like using html to create websites or computer software to do what used to be done by hand. However, in others, the lines of between art and technology get blurred. One person in particular I like to cite is John Maeda who started as more of a scientist and programmer and now is President of Rhode Island School of Design. His work shows the possibility that exists between blending art and programming (View Work). There are a number of people who have come after him, but he really pioneered this blending of discipline.

After discussing artists/makers like John Maeda, I would then present the students with Makey Makey kits and explain the basics of how to use them as well as guide them to some electronic resources to aid in their projects. After assigning them to groups, I would task them with the open ended problem of combining the Makey Makey with their own art in some meaningful manner. I would provide the below examples of others making use of the Makey Makey  in a similar fashion to give them a jumping off point for the possibilities. The students would then have to use problem solving within the constructs of Experiential Learning and Constructivism to explore the kit itself to figure out what they could create and would want to create. The experience would demonstrate the process of experimentation that the other artists and designers explored while also helping them to connect with the material on a meaningful and personal level thereby increasing the likelihood of mastery of the material (Bransford, J.D., Brown, A.L. & Cocking).

Makey Makey Artistic Experiments for Reference

≡ A MACHINES SKETCHBOOK ≡ from Philippe Dubost on Vimeo.
This installation allows you to control drawings of machines that generate words and poetry under your eyes. Technology: vvvv.org, makey makey, projection, hand drawings
Done within the Moment Factory LABS (http://www.momentfactory.com/)

Makey! Makey! from Wolff Olins on Vimeo.
It’s a simple piece of electronics based on an Arduino Leonardo micro controller that lets people from all ages explore new ways to interact with computers. We thought it’d be neat to toy around with the idea of an interactive poster, and Jody has just created a lovely one for the do the green thing campaign. Borrowing a bit of tin foil from the kitchen and a projector, the idea here is that a print based poster gets layered with a video graphic. By touching the poster, you control which movie is playing.

makey makey – fonk and cats 1920×1080 from FONK on Vimeo.

Bransford, J., Brown, A.L. & Cocking, R. R. (Eds.), How people learn: Brain, mind, experience and school (pp. 3-27). Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press. Retrieved from http://www.nap.edu/openbook.php?isbn=0309070368

“Constructivist Theory (Jerome Bruner).” Constructivist Theory. N.p., n.d. Web. 10 Nov. 2013. <http://www.instructionaldesign.org/theories/constructivist.html>.

“Experiential Learning (Carl Rogers).” Experiential Learning. N.p., n.d. Web. 10 Nov. 2013. <http://www.instructionaldesign.org/theories/experiental-learning.html>.

Maeda, John. “Selected Works by John Maeda.” MAEDASTUDIO. N.p., 16 July 2013. Web. 10 Nov. 2013. <http://www.maedastudio.com/index.php>.

CEP811: Thrifting – Creating a Quiz Buzzer System

This week we were tasked with visiting a thrift store whether virtually or physically to come up with ideas for re-purposing materials. This is something I’ve done for most of my life. Artists are masters of re-purposing whether it’s using old jars as paint containers or finding a tackle box to store art supplies. It’s a great way to save money and to reuse materials that might otherwise end up in a landfill. At first I was a little perplexed because I teach adults not children, so it didn’t seem like there were as many possibilities to do this. However, the perfect answer came to me when I was thinking about playing Jeopardy to review for exam. I have done this in the past, but fighting always ensues when relying on my judgment to see who raised their hand first to answer. I saw a system of lighted buttons that locks out after the first one was hit. It was perfect, but cost $250 for the system. As usual, necessity (and cheapness) is the mother of invention.

After a little bit of play, I realized the Makey Makey kit would be the perfect tool for creating a buzzer system. I went in search of possible ways to do this online. No one had directions for using the Makey Makey, but I did find a variety of directions for other homemade buzzers. I wanted to figure out what might work for buzzers and what I else I might need before shopping. I typically approach projects in this manner. I figure out what I might want and what might work and then hit the store. I have more success when I have a better idea of what’s needed. Luckily, I found some Staples Easy Buttons at a thrift store. There were a number of them, but I only needed three. It seemed a little serendipitous, but I’ll just be thankful that no one else was interested in them. Based on my explorations, my other idea was plastic bowls. The remainder of the items were gathered from Radio Shack as I did not locate them during my shopping trip. I figured that would most likely be the case. If I wasn’t using the Makey Makey, I would have looked for a USB keyboard to use for the processing. I found several sites that mentioned that was an option.


At this point, I went to talk an electronics instructor that I know to make sense of the electronics part it. I am not an expert on the electronics. I understand the programming part, but needed a better idea of how the electronics worked to reconfigure it to the materials I wanted to use. I showed him some of the examples I found and he drew out the below diagrams to explain how it worked. This helped me better understand some the flaws in my initial thinking and to work out how everything needed to be wired to each other. I’m at the point where I’m ready to start creating the physical parts, but need a little more time with the programming. I would like to have the ability to use this soon with my class.

Electrical Wiring Drawing courtesy of Terry Taebel

3 Staples Easy Buttons
Red LEDs
LED Holders
Project Box
2 conductor wire
Glue Gun
May need a soldering iron w/solder
Arduino Software



  1. Remove the pads on the backs of the Staples Easy Buttons to get access to the screws. Unscrew the screws to expose the wiring of the buttons. I can disable at the sound at this point either by removing the connecting wire or simply remove the batteries. The batteries are unnecessary for making this work. I will also need to drill a hole for the alligator clip to run to the button when the button is reassembled.
  2. I then need to connect the buttons to the Makey Makey via the alligator clips included in the kit. When the button is pressed, it should generate a feed to the program written for the Makey Makey to process the information.
  3. The Makey Makey then needs to be connected to the LED that will light up indicating which buzzer rang in first. (I realize this step may be unnecessary as I may be able to program it to just put a message on screen, but I think the light may be more beneficial with students.
  4. The LEDS than need to be secured inside the project box. I will start by drilling three hole the LEDs in the top of the box. I will feed a LED holder into the whole. Then, I will place the LED inside. I will need to also make a hole in the side to feed the wires back to the Makey Makey. It was suggested that glue be used to secure the items in the box.
  5. Write the program for the Makey Makey. You will need to download the software posted here: https://www.sparkfun.com/tutorials/388. This software will give you an editing window to reprogram your Makey Makey for a new purpose. The site also breaks down the basics of working with the console. It will be helpful to have some understanding of programming for this step.
  6. Continue testing your program as you go until the pressing one of the buttons causes the corresponding light to light up and locks out the others.
  7. Test out in class and enjoy the fun.


At this point, I’m still testing the specifics. The electronics instructor thought I was crazy to try to get it done in a weekend and it looks like he may be right. I will update with more specific instructions once it is completely worked out. I think this would be a great tool for teachers of all grade levels. In my past experience, Jeopardy is a great tool for reviewing for an exam. My hope is this project can help others teachers implement this into the classroom and eliminate disputes about who “rang” in first while still being affordable. Right now, the project is costing my under a $100, but I would like to reduce the price further.

Arduino – Learn the basics. N.p., n.d. Web. 3 Nov. 2013. <http://arduino.cc/en/Tutorial/HomePage>.

“Cee’z Blog.” RSS 20. N.p., 25 Sept. 2008. Web. 3 Nov. 2013. <http://my.opera.com/ceez/blog/buzzerlockout>.

Chrétien, Philippe. “public pchretien / quiz.”GitHub. N.p., n.d. Web. 3 Nov. 2013. <https://github.com/pchretien/quiz>.

“Electronic Games.” Game Circuits. N.p., n.d. Web. 3 Nov. 2013. <http://www.techlib.com/electronics/games.html>.

“Game Show Buzzer System.” uosuıqoɹ ɯoʇ / projects / easybutton / buzzer.php. N.p., n.d. Web. 3 Nov. 2013. <http://tlrobinson.net/projects/easybutton/buzzer.php>.

Hoover, Dan. “DIY Game Show Buzzer System.” DIY Game Show Buzzer System. N.p., n.d. Web. 3 Nov. 2013. <http://http://danhoover.net/dh/index.php/diy-stuff/diy-game-show-buzzer/21>.

“MaKey MaKey Quickstart Guide (Part 2) – SparkFun Electronics.” MaKey MaKey Quickstart Guide (Part 2) – SparkFun Electronics. N.p., 14 Aug. 2012. Web. 3 Nov. 2013. <https://www.sparkfun.com/tutorials/388>.

“Quiz Show Buzzer System using Staples Easy Button.” Instructables.com. N.p., n.d. Web. 3 Nov. 2013. <http://www.instructables.com/id/Quiz-Show-Buzzer-System-using-Staples-Easy-Button/>.

“Quizshow buttons on the cheap – Intro.” Quizshow buttons on the cheap – Intro. N.p., n.d. Web. 3 Nov. 2013. <http://hackadayhttp://spritesmods.com/?art=quizbtn&f=tw>.

Robinson, Mark. “How to Create a Lockout Buzzer System | eHow.” eHow. Demand Media, 30 Sept. 2011. Web. 3 Nov. 2013. <http://www.ehow.com/how_12112065_create-lockout-buzzer-system.html>.

Szczys, Mike. “Building a Quiz-show style buzzer system.” Hack a Day. N.p., 1 June 2012. Web. 3 Nov. 2013. <http://hackaday.com/2012/06/01/building-a-quiz-show-style-buzzer-system/>.

“basbrun.com.” basbruncom. N.p., 30 May 2012. Web. 3 Nov. 2013. <http://basbrun.com/2012/05/30/quiz-buzzer-system/>.